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博坊PT四灵【zhaodao100.com】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。毕节晌灰工贸有限公司(原张掖柯敢鼗装饰工程有限公司)成立于1993年,占地面积23307平方米,新橙线上平台其中生产厂房占地9817平方米,仓库面积占地0155平方米。固定资产6160万元,流动资产0188万元,干部职工共671人,工程技术人员25人。博坊PT四灵ZhangChenghui,ChenDaofu,(1)OpeningpolicyonmarketaccesstoforeigninstitutionsWhenjoiningtheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO),Chinamadecommitmentsinfiveareasincludingformofincorporation,geographicscope,businessscope,nstitutionsinChinaintheformofjoint-venturecompaniesbutwouldnotbeallowedtohavemorethan50%equityholding;foreignnon-lifeinsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishbranches,joint-venturecompaniesandwholly-ownedsubsidiarycompanies.—Thegeographicrestriction,whichhadlimitedforeigninsurancecompaniestoShanghai,Guangzhou,Dalian,ShenzhenandFushanbeforeChinasWTOaccession,,foreigninsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishsubsidiariesinanypartofChina.—Withregardtobusinessscope,foreignlifeinsurancecompanies,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatinglifeinsurancebusinessforforeignersandforChinesewhopersonallypaidpremiums,wouldbeallowedtoprovidepersonallifeinsuranceservice,healthinsurance,groupinsuranceandpension/,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatingpropertyinsurancebusinessforoverseasenterprisesandoperatingpropertyinsuranceandrelatedliabilityinsurance,creditinsurance,masterpolicyandmajorcommercialinsuranceforforeign-investedenterprisesinChina,wouldbeallowedtooperateallinsurancebusinessesexceptmandatoryinsurancelines(third-partyliabilityinsuranceformotorvehiclesandliabilityinsuranceforthedriversandcarriersofcommercialtransportvehicles).—Foreignreinsurancecompanieswouldbesubjecttoneithertherestrictionontheformofincorporationnortherestrictionongeographiclocationandtherestrictiononthenumberofbusinesslicenses.—Withregardtotheconditionsofincorporation,foreigninsuranceinstitu$200millionintotalassets,higherthanthe10-million-yuanpaid-upcapitalrequiredforaChinesecompany.—Withregardtothequalificationofforeignshareholders,theywouldhavetomeettherequirementsoftotalassetsandbusinesshistory(ashareholdermusthaveoperatedinsurancebusinessformorethan30years,itstotalassetsattheendoftheyearbeforeincorporationapplicationshouldnotbelessthanUS$5billion,andtheapplicanthashadarepresentativeofficeinChinaformorethantwoyears).TheinsuranceindustryhasthesamerequirementforforeigncapitalparticipationinChineseinsurancecompaniesasthebankingindustrydoes,namelytheinvestmentinaChinesefinancialinstitutionbyasingleoverseasfinancialinstitutionshouldnotexceed20%andthetotalshareholdingbyforeigncapitalshouldnotexceed25%.—The20%mandatorycedingtoaChinesereinsurancecompanyatthetimewhenChinajoinedtheWTOwouldbelifted.(2)OpeningpolicyonthecontrolofoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompaniesWithregardtothecontrolovertheoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompanies,foreigncompaniesarecurre:—,thebasictermsandpremiumratesofmajorcommercialieterms,ndapprovingthetermsandpremiumratesofmandatoryinsurance,guaranteedinsurancewithaperiodofmorethanoneyear,,%orlower.—,treasurybondsandfinancialbonds,thecommissionalsoallowedinsurancefundstoinvestincorporatebonds,securitiesinvestmentfundsanddirectlyinvestinstockmarkets,,itraisedtheratioofinvestinginsuranceassetsinstockmarketsfrom5%to10%ofthetotalassets,allowedinsurancecompaniestouse15%oftheirtotalassetsforoverseasinvestment,andexpandedthescopeofoverseasinvestmentfromthefixed-earningcategorytoshares,,thecommissionestablishedarelativelyhighthresholdforhigh-riskinvestmentandencouragedsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompaniestocarryoutentrustedinvestmentthrought,mostsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanieshavenoqualificationfordirectstockinvestmentexceptnineChinese-investedinsuranceassetsmanagementcompaniesandthespecially-approvedAssetManagementCenterofChinaRegionofAmericanInternationalAssuranceCo.,,aninsurancecompanymusthaveatleast10billionyuanintotalassetsandthereforesmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanies,bothChineseandforeign,aredifficulttoacquirethisqualification.—,ChinaInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionpromulgatedtheInterimRegulationsontheAdministrationoftheMinimumSolvencyandRegulatoryIndicatorsofInsuranceCompanies,thusbeginninganexperimentonsolvencyregulation,whichusedtherelativelysimple,EU-typefixedratiomodel,(1)ForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustryForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustrywasmainlydoneinthreeforms:branchcompanies,Sino-foreignjoint-venturecompaniesandstrategicinvestors,someforeigncapitalenjoyedthedevelopmentfruitofChinasinsuranceindus,atotalof49foreigninsurancecompaniesfrom15countriesandregionsacrosstheworldhadestablishedatotalof161businessinstitutionsinChina(includingthoseunderpreparation).Table1showsthenumbersofChineseandforeigninsurancecompaniesformallyoperatinginChinasinsurancemarketduringthe2004~%ginChinasInsuranceMarketByChenDaofu,,nterprisesChinasstate-ownedfinancialinstitutionshave,formanyyears,,thePeoplesBankofChinahadservedastheonlyfinancialorganinthesociety,,itwasthe,althoughbanksofvariouskindsandothernon-bankingfinancialinstitutionshaveincreasedtheirmarketsharesgradually,thefourmajorstate-,inthefinalanalysis,,thereformofthestate-ownedbankswillinevitablybecloselylinkedwiththereformofChinasfinancialsystemandwiththedispositionofitsfinancialresources,ratherthanasstate-ownedfinancialinstitutionsisbyitselfaimedatachievingsomemacroscopictarge,imperfectionofthemicro-reformofthestate-ownedfinancialinstitutionshasalsotriggeredoffmacroscopicissues,forexample,thereversedtransmissionofthepressureforeasingmonetaryconditionhasresultedininflation,,thestate-ownedfinancialenterpriseshadplayedafargreaterroleinthehistoryofChinaseconomicdevelopmentthanactingmerelyasfinancialenterprisesandhadeverplayedauniqueroleinpromotingChina,Chinasfinancialenterprisesareimbuedwithfiscalfunctionstoacertainextent,whichhasbeenevidentlyreflectedbythecausesoftheformati,therewerethreemainstagesfortheformationofChinasnon-performingloans:from1980stoearly1990s,thenon-performingloansresultedfromtheloansgrantedtooldtraditionalindustrialenterprisesandloansforblindrepeatconstructions,accountedforabout1/3;thenon-performingloansresultedfromtheloansreleasedduringtheeconomicoverheatingperiodinearly1990smadeup1/3orso;andthenon-performingloansresultedfromthebankruptcy,mergerandrestructuringofenterprisescarriedoutbythestateinmid-andlate1990sconstitutedapproximately1/,theChineseeconomyhadbeenaquantityexpansionpatternunderthedominanceofthegovernment,andthewhollystate-fundedcommercialbankswerestatespecializedbanks,,thoughsuchasituationchangedabit,,thewhollystate-fundedcommercialbankspaidcostforthetransformationofthewholesystem,suchasthemergerandbankruptcyofenterprises,therestructuringoftheenterprisesintextile,coal,defense,foreigntrade,supplyandmarketingindustries,~2000alone,sFinancialInstitutionsReformBeforethereformandopeningupwascarriedoutin1978,Chinapracticedan"all-in-one"sBankofChinaandtheruralcreditcooperativesunderitsleadershipweretheonlyfinancialinstitutions,andthemanpower,financialandmaterialresourcesofvariousbranchesofthePeoplesBankwereunderthec,andthepracticeof"unifieddepositsandunifiedloans"wascarriedout,namely,theabsorbeddepositswerehandedovertotheHeadOfficeforunifiedallocationandloa(theminimumfundquotasneeded)ofenterpriseswerefromfinancialappropriations,andpartofthecircul,includingfinancialfunds,rminedbythestateinaplannedway,andcurrencyservedonlyasanaccounti,~1993:Financialreforminthereformofeconomicincrement----constructionofabasicfinancialsystembasedoneconomicneedsSuchafinancialreformduringthisperiodwasmeanttoprovidenewresourcesforthereformwhiletallyingwiththenewstrategyforthereform.(1)WideningthebusinessscopeofthebanksOntheonehand,bankswerenotonlyabletograntacertainamountofcirculatingfundloans,butcouldpro,shortagesofthecirculatingfunds,appropriationsforChinasbudgeintheunitsownedbythewholepeopleaccountedforabout2/3before1979andonlyfor1/,besidesthestate-runenterprises,loanscouldalsogotoprivately-operatedenterprisesandtotheself-employedaswell.(2)Eancebusiness(before1984).In1979,AgriculturalBankofChinawasre-designatedasthespecializedbankinchargeofthefinancialbusinessinruralareas,BankofChinawasseparatedfromthePeoplesBankofChinaandbecameanindependentspecializedforeignexchangebank,andChinaConstructionBankwasreorga,IndustrialandCommercialBankofChinawasestablishedtoundertakeindustrialandcommercialcreditandurbansavingsbusinesspreviouslyhandledbythePeople,People,institutionalmanagementwaschangedtocorporatemanagement,thereformofcombiningresponsibilities,rightsandinterestswascarriedoutinanall-roundwayandthepracticeof"eatingatthebigpot"inincomedistributionwasbrokendown,,thepracticeof"eatingatthebigpot"infunddistributionwascastaway,fundconstraintfrombankswasgraduallystrengthenedandtheinter-bankbusinesslimitswereruledout....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,sPresidentZhouXiaochuan:ReformofChinasBankingIndustryScalesNewHeights.。

    LongGuoqiang,ZhangLiping,HuJiangyunFangJinTodevelopindependentinnovationisanimportantt,tobuildcapacityofindependentinnothe,thenumberofforeign-investedenterprises(FIEs)approvedbyChinahadreachedanaccumulativetotalof670,tionintobetterplayisaquiteimportantissueforChina’studies,theTaskForce1hascomeupw,wecarriedoutaquestionnairesurveyamongforeign-investedmanufacturingenterprisesandforeign-investedRDcenters(institutions),,wehaveputforwardpolicysuggestionsongivingfullplaytothepositiveroleplayedbyFIEsinindependentinnovation..,independentinnovationcomesupinthreedifferentforms,namely,originalinnovation,integrdtheimplicationof"independent”,effectivepoliciesforfacilitatingindependentinnovationcannotbeformunovationactivities:ledbyChinesecorporatebodies(enterprisesorteachingandresearchinstitutions),beneficialtoformingorenhancingtheinnovationabilityofChineseenterprises/institutions,andentinnovation,thenitw,thedefinit,theinnovationactivitiesconductedby,someoverseascompaniesentrusttheirRDprojectstoChineseenterprisesorRDinstitutions,withtheChineseinstitutionshavingneitherdecision-makinganddominatingrightsovertheprojectsnorintellectualpropertyrights(IPRs)onductresearch,whereastheoverseasinstitutionisnotthesubsidiaryoftheChineseenterpriseandsuchactivitiesarenotbeneficialtoformingorenhancingtheRDcapacityofChina,,someChineseautoenterprisesentrustEuropeandesigningcompaniestoworkoutnewtypesofcarstobeproducedinChina,,thentheRDactivitieswillberegardedasinnition,,HuaweiGrouphassetupsomeRDcentersoverseasandhasconductedinnovationactivitiesthroughthosecentersanditsatisfiesthethreeconditions,thus,theactivitiesconductedbyHua,yettheIPRsdonotbelongtotheChineseentitiesbuttoanoverseascompany,thensuchanactivityshouldnotberegardedasindependentinnovation,,someODMprojectshavebeenresearchedanddevelopedbyChineseenterprisescannotberegardedasinovationTherehavebeencontroversiesovertherelationctanberegrd,tojudgewhetheraninnovationactivityisanindependentinnovationshouldnotbebased,transnationalcorporationshavesetupmorethanonethousandRDinstitutionsinChinaandquiteanuldbeviewedasindependentinnovation,whileothershavenotcompliedw,PanAsiaTechnicalAutomotiveCenterisajointventureestablishedbyGeneralMotorsCorporationandSAICMotorwi,someofPanAsia’sRDactivitiesconductedinChinashouldbeviewedasindepend,althoughanumberofforeign-investedRDinstitutionshaveregisteredthemselvesinChinaasChina-basedcompaniesandarecompetentindoingresearchanddevelopment,however,astheRDdecisionsaremadebytheiroverseasparentcompanies,theydonothavethedominatingrightoverRDactivitiesandtheintellectualpropertyrightsovertheirRDresultsareownedbytheiroverseasparentcompanies,therefore,,therelationshipsbetweenFIEsandindependentinnovationandbetweensuchentalpartofindependentinnovation.ByDaiJianjun,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo123,2010Thecementindustryisabasicindustryconsumi,theworldadvancedcementmanufacturingcountrieshascementoutputhasrankedfirstintheworld,yetthereisstilladifferencebetweenChinademissionreductionforthecementindustryandtoboosttheupgradingoftheindustryisofvita:ToRealizeEnergyConservationandEnvironmentalProtectionthroughTechnicalInnovationByconsolidatingthetechnicalresearchanddevelopmentofthecirculareconomyofthecementindustry,developedcountriesareconstantlystridingforwardtowardsenergyconservationandenvironmentalprot.EnergyresourcesconservatonbyusingindustrialwastesandtrashtoproducecementThecementindustrycanusethemajorityoftoxicandharmfulwastesasblendedmaterialincement1,assubstitutecementrawmaterialorasthealternativefuelsforthecementkilnwithoutcausingsecondarypollution,withoutusingspecialequi,~2007,theaverageamountofthematerialblendedintocementwentupfrom7%%inJapan,11%%inGermanyand4%to6%esoftheblendedmaterialhasenabledthematerialtoreplacecementclinke,,theproportionofheatprovidedbyalternativefuelsofthecementindustryinaggregateheatconsumedbycementclinkerthroughoutthecountrywentupfrom15%orsoto40%~50%(80%inHolland,rankingtop)incountriesofWestandNorthEuropeandfrom5%to15%%~90%incountriesofWestEuropeand30%lewastes,incurringtheleakageoftheburnedashescausingsecondarypollution,therefore,,thecoalsubstitutionratepresentedbythealternativefuelsofthecementindustrycametoapproximately30%nTheheatfromexhaustgasdischargedfromcementproductionaccountsformorethan30%peratureexhaustgasdischargedfromthece,nearly80%ofthe64cementkilnsinvestedbyJapanwereinstalledwithlow-temperaturecogenerationequipment,recycling48%,theUSCementAssociationclaimedthatthenewdry-processcemelpollutionBulkcementcarriersarefavorableforresourceconservation,p,bulkcementcanbeloaded,transported,storedandusedinasealed-offwaydirectlywithspecialequipment(tank-bodiedvehicles,vesselsandwarehouses),reducingresourceconsumptiononthepackagi~1975,%%,%%inmid-1950sand90%in1970sandnowremainsat95%,BritainandNorthEuropeancountriesallremainsaround70%.Inrecentyears,handling,transportationandstorageofcementpackedinbulkhavebeenalsorequiredinAsianandSoutheastAsiancountries(suchasSouthKoreaandSingapore).mentIndustrythroughTechnicalInnovationThecementind,thereweremorethan5,000cementmanufacturingenterprisesinChina,,%ofthenationaltotal,withlargeamountsofmineralresources,suchaslimestone,clayandgypsum,%ofthenationaltotal,theamountofdust(smoke)hasconstitutedmorethan30%ofthenationaltotalandtheamountofsulfurdi,,theenterprisesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernmentadoptedadvancedrotary-kilntechnologies,,thecementoutputgener,thankstothelessconstructioninvestmentandshortconstructionperiod,~2000,whencementproductiontechnologystructureexperiencedsomechangesinChina,theratioofcementproducedwithsuchadvancedtechnologiesasrotarykilnwasconstantlydecreasing,whiletheratioofcementproducedwithsuchsmall-scalebackwardtechnologiesasshaftkilnwasincreasing,makingup80%,withitsqualitybeingpooryetwithahighconsumptionofresources,aseriousenvironmentalpollutionandalowlaborproductivity,waseliminatedearlyindevelo,effortshavebeensteppeduptoacceleratetheadjustmentofthei,byintegratingtechnologyintroduction,technologyassimilationandindependentdevelopment,Chinastartedtheresearchandde,thelate-modeldry-processcementpr,,theproportionofthedry-processcementaccountedfor70%ofthetotalcementoutput,winningini,theChinesecemententerprisesalsopushedthelump-sumcontractingincludingChina-madecompleteequipmentontotheinternationalmarket,makingup37%ofthekindontheinternationalmarketin2007.10-200米,businessesofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprisesSeparatingandreformingthesecondarybusinessesofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshasbeenoneofChina,2002,eightministriesandcommissionsincludingtheformerStateEconomicandTradeCommissionjointlyissuedtheImplementationMethodofSeparatingtheCoreandSecondaryBusinesses,ReformingtheSecondaryBusinessesandRelocatingRedundantPersonneloftheLargeandMedium-SizedState-OwnedEnterprises(hereinafterthe859Document).Ifthisdocumentisregardedasthedemarcationline,theprocessofsepara,separatingthecoreandsecondarybusinessesw"efficiencyimprovement".Itemphasizedtheseparationofthecoreandseco,the"freezing"and"isolating"approacheswereusedandthecoreandsecondarybusinesseswerenotreallyseparatedintermsofpersonnel,assets,businessoperation,,thesecondarybusinesseswerenotactuallyseparatedthoughdivided,,thelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprise,theyemphasizedtheliberalizationofthesecondarybusinesses,theseparationofthecoreandsecondarybusinesses,therestructuringecoreandsecondarybusinessesintheareasofownership,finance,centitieswithdiverseformsofownership,andtoestablishamoderncorporatesystemandastandardcorporategovernancestructure,,thelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshavemadetangibleprogressinseparatingtheirc,atotalof1,252largeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprisesnationwidehadseparatedtheircoreandsecondarybusinesses,,76enterprisesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernmenthadseentheirreformplansbeingapproved,whichinvolvedtherestructuringof4,879unitsandtherelocationof777,,theeastregionhasbasicallycompletedtheprocessofs,thecentralenterpriseshadhandedover1,528institutionsperformingsocialfunctions,86,000personnelinactiveservice,andretired49,000teachers(SpeechmadebyLiRongrongonJanuary25,2007attheNationalWorkingConferenceontheSupervisionandManagementofState-OwnedAssets).Theseparationandreformofthesecondarybusinessesofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshaverelocatedlargenumbersofredundantcorporatepersonnel,vigorouslypushedforwardtheinternalrestructuringofthestate-ownedenterpriseusinessesofthestate-ownedenterprises,specializingandmarketizingthesecondarybusinessesandboostingthevitality,,thelargeandmedium-sizedstate-o,theprogressisalsoattribrybusinessesandreformingthesecondarybusinessesoflargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprisesOverall,theworkisclosetoanendinseparatingthecoreandsecondarybusinessesandreformingthe,,someenterprisesthathavepreliminarilycompletedtheseparationofthecoreandsecondarybusinessesstillhavetofurtherre,continuedeffortsareneededtovigorouslypushforwardthisworkonth,thetasktoseparateandreformthesecondarybusinessesisstillveryheavyinthemonopolyindustries,suchaspower,oil,railway,tedreforms,thereformofthesecondarybusinesseswithintheenterpriseshavebeco,forexample,thereformin2002hasstrippedoffmost,thetwopowergridenterprisesstillhavemanyunitsengagedinthe"tertiaryindustry"and"diverseoperations",theyalsohavevariousunitsengagedinpowerdesign,,thereformtaskaheadforthisindustryisbothheavyanddifficult,andisoneoftheimporta,theyhavebasicallybeenstr,theChinaNationalOffshoreOilCorporation(CNOOC)hasestablishedsuchspecializedcompaniesastheChinaOffshoreOilCompany,theChinaOffshoreOilfieldServiceCompany,theOffshoreOilEngineeringCompanytheChinaOffshorePetrochemicalCompany,(CNPC)andtheChinaPetroleumandChemicalCorporation(SINOPEC),someenterprisesthathavecompletedtheseparationofthecoreandsecondarybutseparated,ssetsarestillheavilydependentonthelistedcompaniesorjoint-ventureenterprises,whichrestrainsthedevelopmentofthec,somesecondaryratedtheircoreandsecondarybusinesses,theyoftenovationandsustai,italsocontradictswiththecountryrthese"secondaryassets".。

    大奖888CQ9世界杯明星ByLongGuoqiang,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo5,2009Overthepast30yearssincetheimplementationofthepolicyofreformandopening-up,Chinafirmlyseizedthestrategicopportunityofeconomicglobalizationbyadoptingthemarketfortec,China,havingintroducedalotofadvancedtechnologiesandequipmentanddramaticallyimprovedtechnicalequipmentlevelofmanufacturingindustry,hasgrowntobealow-costma,duetothestrongtrendof"introductionfirst,yetdigestion,absorptionandre-innovationsecond"indomesticenterprises,thetechnologyspillo,domesticenterprisesjustbegintoimplementself-innovationand"goglobal"strategybyutilizingglobalresources,an,Chinamusttakefulladvantageofglobalresourcesandgreatlyenhanceself-innovation,inorderto,thestrategyofopeningtotheoutsideworldintheneweramustudevelopmentinChinaachievedmajoraccomplishmentsduringthepast30years,,rapideconomicgrowthhasbeenmainlydrivenbyfactorinput,seconomicscalecontinuouslyincreases,itseconomicdevelopmentwillfacemoreseverelimitationsonresources,transformintoapatterninwhnstantlyimprovingself-innovationabilityand,,frommonopolyoftheUnitedStatestotherecoveryofJapanandGermanyfromremainsofwar,t,theyallrosethroughs,manydevelopingcountrieshavebecomeemergingeconomies,whicharecontinuouslyshorteningthegapbetweentheirtechnologicallevelwiththeworldadvancedlevelandbecotcutforlate-comerstorapidlycatchupw,openingtoth,Chinaestablishedaconsiderablycompletemodernindustrialsystemby,Chinahasintroducedalotofadvancedtechnologies,equipmentandmanagement,becomingoneofthelow-,manysectorsofmanufacturingindustryon,chainofdivisionoflaborisnotonlyarequirementofimplementingScientificOutlookonDevelopmentandtransformingthepatternofeconomicdevelopment,butalsoaninherentrequirementofadaptingtothationalindustrialtransferforcesdevelopedcountriestorelymoreonintellect,developedcountriesconstantlystrengthentheprotectionofint,enterprisesindevelopedcountries,especiallytransnationalcompanies,investmoreintechnologicalresearchanddevelopmenttomaint,85%ofglobalintellectualpropertylinkinglobaldivisionoflabor,itwillbesubalpropertyrightsis,about1/msof,asChinasindustrialcompetitivenessgreatlyincreasesininternationalmarketandthegapbetweenitstechnicallevelandinternationaladvancedlevelisdramaticallynarrowed,transnationalcompaniesaretargetingChineseenterprisesastheirmaincompetitorsinfuture,whichwillcausebiggerdifficultiesandhighercostsforChinlevelfromNipponSteelCorporation,,theremarksofaseniorexecutivefromaEuropeansteelcompanyreflecttheconcernsoftransnationalcompaniesaboutcontinuoustechnologicaltransferstoChina:"IfwecontinuetransferringnewtechnologiestoChinesesteelenterprises,wewilllosethewholemarket."Therefore,ChinamustgreatlyimplemlutilizationinChinaandmeetingChinasrequirementthrougstsself-innovationaimsatimprovingindustrialtechnicallevel,continuouslycultivatingindependentintellonforvariouscountries,,economicglobalizationprovidesalotofn,cross-borderflowsofglobalRDtalents,cross-bordertransfersofhigh-levelmanufacturingandRDactivitiesfromtransnationalcompanies,advancementofinformationtechnologyanddramaticdecreaseofthecostforinformationcommunication,cross-bordermergersandacquisitionsamongtechnology-basedcompaniesandimprovedprotectionofintellectualpropertyrightsprovidenewopportunitiesfordevelopingcoun,maximumresultscanbeachievedwithlittlee,lossoftalentsandtechnologicalinformationmayintensifyandtheself-,Chinashouldbebravetoandlearoftheimpactofeconomicglobalization,onlyhalfresultscanbeachievedwithtwiceeffort,andthegapbetweeninternationaladvancedlevelanditsownwillbeenlarged.ByXiangAnbo,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo72,sMineralResourcesCharacterizedbyaRichAggregateyetaPer-capitaInadequacyBeingvastinterritory,Chinaisabigproducer,,Chinastot,ataper-capitacalculation,Chinasmineralresourcesonlyaccountfor58%oftheworldaverage,edby"ThreeMajoritiesandOneDifficulty",completecategorieswithunsatisfactorystructureandarelativelyconcentrate,,onlysuchmineralresourceswithtraditionaladvantagesastungsten,stibium,rare-earth,graphiteandmagnesite,seetheirper-capitadepositsexceedingtheworldaverage,whilethedepositsofthestrategicmineralresourcesthatareofvitalimportancetothenationaleconomyandthepeopleslivelihood,suchasiron,manganese,chromium,copper,aluminum,goldandsilver,,copperandaluminum,onlycometo1/6,1/6and1/9oftheworldaverage,,ofthe45sortsofkeymineralresources,onlythesupplyof23sortscanbeguaranteed,whilethesupplyof10sortshastobeguaranteedthroughimportsoveraprotractedperiodoftimeand5sortsdependmainlyonimportsasaresultofscarcity;andby2020,onlythesupplyof6sortscanbeguaranteed,sseveremineralconstraintsarereflectedbymorethan10sortsofmineralresources,suchasironore,bauxite,copperore,uranium,sylvite,nickelandmanganeseore,,copper,aluminum,leadandzincareallconstraintmineralsofChina,andcopperandaluminumrestrainChinasumptionofresourcesChinasindustrializationdriveisaprocessofindustria,Chinasuffersmoreres,ChinaisenteringeousconditionstobeusedbyChinatorealizeitsmechanization,electrization,electronizationandinformatizationsynchronically,relatedstudieshavepredictedthatby2020whenChinainitiallyrealizesitsindustrialization,Chinasper-capitaannualconsumptionofmineralresourceswillpossiblybelo,duetoChinaslargepopulation,,Chinawillstillincreaseitsconsumptionofmineralresource,thecoefficientofelastic,inordertoensureadevelopmentfornext20years,Chinawillneedatleast30billiontonsofironore,rs,thegrowthofdepositsofChinasmajormineralresourceshasbeenslowerthantheincreaseofmineralproducts,andtheincreaseofmineralproductsha,%%in2005,andfellduring2006and2008,yetwentupagaintoanall-timehighof62%in2006(withtheactiveandtimelyadjustmentofthedemandmadebyChineseenterprisesaccordingtopriceupsanddownsasareasonablefactor).IntermsoftheperiodofChinasindustrializationandinviewoftheinternationalexperience,foralongperiodoftime,thecontradictionsbetweenthesupplyanddemandofsomemajorandpillarmineralproductsinChinawillstillcontinuetoaggravate,andtheoverallimportdependencewillincreaseertheforeignresourcurcesofironore,bauxiteandcopperore,ChinamainlydependsonAustralia,Brazil,IndiaandSouthAfricaforironore,onAustralia,IndiaandJamaicaforbauxite,andonChile,Mongolia,candtraderelationswiththesecountriesaswellasitsinvestmentinresourceindustriesofthesecountries.——Analysisofeconomicperformanceinthefirstquarterof2010andprospectsforthewholeyearDRCTaskForceonAnalysisoftheEconomicPerformanceDuringthefirstquarterof2010,Chinaseco,newcircumstancesandissues,suchasthedeclineoftheinvestmentgrowth,theshrinkageoftradesurplusandtheexpansionofemploymentdifficulties,tuations,thepressureofdownturnfacingthee,theas,themacroeconomicpoliciesneedtokeepabalancebetweenmaintainingthesoundandrapiddevelopmentoftheeconomyandguardingagainstpricebubbleandrestraininginflationandthepoliciesshouldbeadjustedattherighttimei,thestructuraladjustmentandthetransformationofthemodeofdevelopmentsoastolayagoodicultiesHaveFar-reachingInfluenceDuetotheimprovedexternalenvironment,exportgrowthhasreachedahighlevel,domesticconsumptiondemandhasgrownsteadily,plusthelowerbaseforthesameperiodof2009,theeconom,investmentgrowthhasdeclinedsubstantially,tradesurplushasfurthershrunkandthep,theemploymentdifficultieshaveshownthechangeoftendenciesinChinaslaborsupply-and-demandsituati010,%,(%).DuringJanuaryandFebruary,urbanfixedassetinvestment,afterallowingfortheriseoftheproducerspricesofmeansofproduction,%,(%).Thesubstantialdeclineoftheinvestmentgrowthismainlymanifestedbythedecreasi,investmentinprojectsoftheCentralGovernmentandofthelocalgovernmentsgrewby14%%respectively,%,,especiallyfromtheprivatesectoroftheeconomy(investmentfromnon-stateunitsexcludesthatfromHongKong,Macao,TaiwanandForeigninvestors),investme%%respectively,beenthemainreasonforthed,stimulatedbytheexpansivefinancialandmonetarypolicies,,%%.Affectedbythis,%%.InFebruaryof2010,,%,stimulusofthepoliciestoinvestmentgraduallyfadedaway,withtheinvestmentgrowthdecliningtotheaverageof2007and2008(%).d,overthefirsttwomonthsof2010China%.TheeconomyoftheUnitedStates,theEuropeanUnionandJapanbegantobecomestableandgo,importsoftheUnitedStates,%,%%respectivelyandJapansimportsincreasedto30%considerableincreaseofimportprices,%,theEuropeanUnionandJapan,theChineseeconomyrecoveredearlierandbyawidemarginandChina,theaggregateimportvolume,imports%,%%,withtherecoveryofChineseandforeigneconomiesanddrivenbytherapidgrowthofdemand,pricesofprimarycommoditiesontheinternationalmarketrosebyawidemarginonceagain,andpricesofChina,pricesofallimportsandthe%,%%a,China%inJanuaryandFebruaryof2010fromayearearlier,,China%,,,,,especiallytheriseofimportpricesofprimarycommodities,e,uncertaintyexistsintherapidgrowthofChinaoveupChinasstocklevels,,growthoftheimportsof“re-stocking”.ConsumptionandinvestmentdemandintheUnitedStates,,thedemandfor“re-stocking”willreducerapidlyandthegrowthofChina,ordersreceivedbyChineseexportenterprisesaremainlyshort-termandemergentorders,suggestingthatuncertaintyexistsinthestrongreboundoftheexportgrowthandtheincreaseofexternaldemand.博坊PT四灵重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,strycomplementarityfirstwhenwe,,ofanother,thesetwocommoditiesareconsideredascomplementarygoods,forexample,,complementary,thesetwoindustriesareregardedascomplementary,andsuchcomplementarityisdefinedas"onesdevelopmentisdeterminedbytheothersdevelopment".However,"onesdevelopmentisdeterminedbytheothersdevelopment"type,thereisanothercaseofcomplementaritycalled"onehaswhattheotherlacks"type,and,ry,,andnomattersuchcomplementaritytakesformsof"onehaswhattheotherlacks"or"onesdevelopmentisdeterminedbytheothersdevelopment",itiesamongcountries,,theinter-industrydivisionformsthecomplementarityof"onehaswhattheotherlacks",whiletheintra-industrydivisionshapesthecomplementarityof"onesdevelopmentisdeterminedbytheothersdevelopment"andb,threeindustrialrelationsleadtothreedifferentmodesoftrade:"onehaswhattheotherlacks"ismanifestedasone-waytradeamongindustries;"onesdevelopmentisdeterminedbytheothersdevelopment"ismanifestedasverticalintra-industrytrade;competiti,IndustrialRelationsandTradeModesFigure2ChangestoChinasOverseasAcquisitionsin2007and2008Source:BasedontheStatisticalBulletinsonChinasOverseasD,thegrowthofChina$,%ofthecountry,theinvestmentsthroughacquisitionsrosesharplytoUS$28billion,makingup50%ofthecountry,theinvestmentsthroughacquisitionshavediversified,risingrapidlyinbothdevelopinganddevelopedcountriesandbeingveryactiveinbothupstreamresour,Chineseenterprises,ariskinvestmentdataservicecompany,Chinasoverseasacquisitionsinthesecondquarterof2009alonereachedUS$,,notonlythecentralstate-ownedenterprisesandlargeenterprisesperformedremarkablywellinoverseasacquisitionsin2009,butalsothemedium-sizedenterprises,especiallytheregionalonesandprivateones,ince,theprovincesoverseasdirectinv,,threeoverseasacquisitions,includingtheHualingGroup%stakesfromAustraliasFMGCompany,becamethelargestofitskindintheprovince,Chineseenterprisescompleted71overseasacquisitionsfromearly2008totheendofJuly2009,ofwhich33or46%ofth,somenewelementsassociatedwithChineseenterprises,Chineseenterpriseshavegrownfastinacquiringfamouscorpor,JiliGroup,aprivateautomakerinChina,completedtheacquisitionofAustraliasDSICompany,aworldfamousauto-gearproducera,theycaneffectivelybenefitChineseenterprisesinovercomingtheirshort-boardeffectinbrandsandtechnologies,promotingtheircorporateupgradin,itisdeterminedbythedifferentdevelopmentsta,,withtheiroperationalrevenuebeingashighasRMB100billionyuan,butthecompetitivesectorsalsohaveenterprises,,manyofthemareprivateenterprises,,therapidexpansionofcorporatescalehasalsoconcealedsomein-depthproblems,suchaslowtechnologicallevel,laggingbrandbuilding,lowproductqualityandaddedvalue,,Chineseenterpriseshavealsoswitchedfrotechnologicalinnovation,productresearchanddevelopment,brandbuilding,qualitycontrolandsupplychainmanagement,,theoutbreakoftheglobalfinancialcrisisin2008hasaggravatedtheweakmarketdemand,theautoandpartsenterprises,themachineryandelectronicsenterprisesandthedailynecessityenterprisesinEurope,Americaandotherdevelopedregionshaveallbeentroubledbydrasticallyshrunkdemandanddivingproductionandsales,andmanyofthemhaveseentheir,,theyhavetemporarilys,Chineseenterprisesoverseascorporateacquisitionscanproducesomesynergyeffect,b,ithas,Chinasindustrializationhasbecomefasterandfaster,rapidlyincreasingtheconsumptionofminerals,,ChinahasbecomeaninternationalmanufacturingbaseandChineseenterpriseshaveinfactpermanufacturingcapacities,,thedramaticriseanddrasticfluctuationinthemarketpricesofmineralresourcesandotherbulkcommoditieshavepromotedChineseenterprisestoacquireoverseasresourcee,itisalsorelatedtothecontinuousgrowthofChina,ChinasforeignexchangereservehasexceededUS$2trillion,andpurchasingAmericannationaldebtsandmakingi,boththeenterprisesandgovernmenthavetheinitiat,theplummetingstockpricesofoverseasenterprisesarisingfromthe2008globalfinancialcrisishavefurtherstimulatedtheenthusiasmofCh,mostoverseasacquisitionshavebeenpromptedbytheaboveinevitablefactors....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LongGuoqiang,ZhangLiping,HuJiangyunFangJinTodevelopindependentinnovationisanimportantt,tobuildcapacityofindependentinnothe,thenumberofforeign-investedenterprises(FIEs)approvedbyChinahadreachedanaccumulativetotalof670,tionintobetterplayisaquiteimportantissueforChina’studies,theTaskForce1hascomeupw,wecarriedoutaquestionnairesurveyamongforeign-investedmanufacturingenterprisesandforeign-investedRDcenters(institutions),,wehaveputforwardpolicysuggestionsongivingfullplaytothepositiveroleplayedbyFIEsinindependentinnovation..,independentinnovationcomesupinthreedifferentforms,namely,originalinnovation,integrdtheimplicationof"independent”,effectivepoliciesforfacilitatingindependentinnovationcannotbeformunovationactivities:ledbyChinesecorporatebodies(enterprisesorteachingandresearchinstitutions),beneficialtoformingorenhancingtheinnovationabilityofChineseenterprises/institutions,andentinnovation,thenitw,thedefinit,theinnovationactivitiesconductedby,someoverseascompaniesentrusttheirRDprojectstoChineseenterprisesorRDinstitutions,withtheChineseinstitutionshavingneitherdecision-makinganddominatingrightsovertheprojectsnorintellectualpropertyrights(IPRs)onductresearch,whereastheoverseasinstitutionisnotthesubsidiaryoftheChineseenterpriseandsuchactivitiesarenotbeneficialtoformingorenhancingtheRDcapacityofChina,,someChineseautoenterprisesentrustEuropeandesigningcompaniestoworkoutnewtypesofcarstobeproducedinChina,,thentheRDactivitieswillberegardedasinnition,,HuaweiGrouphassetupsomeRDcentersoverseasandhasconductedinnovationactivitiesthroughthosecentersanditsatisfiesthethreeconditions,thus,theactivitiesconductedbyHua,yettheIPRsdonotbelongtotheChineseentitiesbuttoanoverseascompany,thensuchanactivityshouldnotberegardedasindependentinnovation,,someODMprojectshavebeenresearchedanddevelopedbyChineseenterprisescannotberegardedasinovationTherehavebeencontroversiesovertherelationctanberegrd,tojudgewhetheraninnovationactivityisanindependentinnovationshouldnotbebased,transnationalcorporationshavesetupmorethanonethousandRDinstitutionsinChinaandquiteanuldbeviewedasindependentinnovation,whileothershavenotcompliedw,PanAsiaTechnicalAutomotiveCenterisajointventureestablishedbyGeneralMotorsCorporationandSAICMotorwi,someofPanAsia’sRDactivitiesconductedinChinashouldbeviewedasindepend,althoughanumberofforeign-investedRDinstitutionshaveregisteredthemselvesinChinaasChina-basedcompaniesandarecompetentindoingresearchanddevelopment,however,astheRDdecisionsaremadebytheiroverseasparentcompanies,theydonothavethedominatingrightoverRDactivitiesandtheintellectualpropertyrightsovertheirRDresultsareownedbytheiroverseasparentcompanies,therefore,,therelationshipsbetweenFIEsandindependentinnovationandbetweensuchentalpartofindependentinnovation.ByLongGuoqiang,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo5,2009Overthepast30yearssincetheimplementationofthepolicyofreformandopening-up,Chinafirmlyseizedthestrategicopportunityofeconomicglobalizationbyadoptingthemarketfortec,China,havingintroducedalotofadvancedtechnologiesandequipmentanddramaticallyimprovedtechnicalequipmentlevelofmanufacturingindustry,hasgrowntobealow-costma,duetothestrongtrendof"introductionfirst,yetdigestion,absorptionandre-innovationsecond"indomesticenterprises,thetechnologyspillo,domesticenterprisesjustbegintoimplementself-innovationand"goglobal"strategybyutilizingglobalresources,an,Chinamusttakefulladvantageofglobalresourcesandgreatlyenhanceself-innovation,inorderto,thestrategyofopeningtotheoutsideworldintheneweramustudevelopmentinChinaachievedmajoraccomplishmentsduringthepast30years,,rapideconomicgrowthhasbeenmainlydrivenbyfactorinput,seconomicscalecontinuouslyincreases,itseconomicdevelopmentwillfacemoreseverelimitationsonresources,transformintoapatterninwhnstantlyimprovingself-innovationabilityand,,frommonopolyoftheUnitedStatestotherecoveryofJapanandGermanyfromremainsofwar,t,theyallrosethroughs,manydevelopingcountrieshavebecomeemergingeconomies,whicharecontinuouslyshorteningthegapbetweentheirtechnologicallevelwiththeworldadvancedlevelandbecotcutforlate-comerstorapidlycatchupw,openingtoth,Chinaestablishedaconsiderablycompletemodernindustrialsystemby,Chinahasintroducedalotofadvancedtechnologies,equipmentandmanagement,becomingoneofthelow-,manysectorsofmanufacturingindustryon,chainofdivisionoflaborisnotonlyarequirementofimplementingScientificOutlookonDevelopmentandtransformingthepatternofeconomicdevelopment,butalsoaninherentrequirementofadaptingtothationalindustrialtransferforcesdevelopedcountriestorelymoreonintellect,developedcountriesconstantlystrengthentheprotectionofint,enterprisesindevelopedcountries,especiallytransnationalcompanies,investmoreintechnologicalresearchanddevelopmenttomaint,85%ofglobalintellectualpropertylinkinglobaldivisionoflabor,itwillbesubalpropertyrightsis,about1/msof,asChinasindustrialcompetitivenessgreatlyincreasesininternationalmarketandthegapbetweenitstechnicallevelandinternationaladvancedlevelisdramaticallynarrowed,transnationalcompaniesaretargetingChineseenterprisesastheirmaincompetitorsinfuture,whichwillcausebiggerdifficultiesandhighercostsforChinlevelfromNipponSteelCorporation,,theremarksofaseniorexecutivefromaEuropeansteelcompanyreflecttheconcernsoftransnationalcompaniesaboutcontinuoustechnologicaltransferstoChina:"IfwecontinuetransferringnewtechnologiestoChinesesteelenterprises,wewilllosethewholemarket."Therefore,ChinamustgreatlyimplemlutilizationinChinaandmeetingChinasrequirementthrougstsself-innovationaimsatimprovingindustrialtechnicallevel,continuouslycultivatingindependentintellonforvariouscountries,,economicglobalizationprovidesalotofn,cross-borderflowsofglobalRDtalents,cross-bordertransfersofhigh-levelmanufacturingandRDactivitiesfromtransnationalcompanies,advancementofinformationtechnologyanddramaticdecreaseofthecostforinformationcommunication,cross-bordermergersandacquisitionsamongtechnology-basedcompaniesandimprovedprotectionofintellectualpropertyrightsprovidenewopportunitiesfordevelopingcoun,maximumresultscanbeachievedwithlittlee,lossoftalentsandtechnologicalinformationmayintensifyandtheself-,Chinashouldbebravetoandlearoftheimpactofeconomicglobalization,onlyhalfresultscanbeachievedwithtwiceeffort,andthegapbetweeninternationaladvancedlevelanditsownwillbeenlarged.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ByLiuShijin,HouYongzhiShiYaodong,,2008SinceChinabegantoimplementthepolicyofreformandopeningup,itseconomicandsocialdevelopmenthasscoredgreatachievements,,,Chinafacestheopportunitiesarisingfromdeepeningeconomicglobalization,thesurgingwaveofanewworldwideindustrializationa,infaceofthechallengesoftherisingfactorcosts,greaterresourceandenvironmentpressure,wideningincomegap,aggravatingdevelopmentunevennessandmoreworldeconomicoperationalrisks,itshouldfurtherchangethemodeofeconomicdevelopmentansModeofEconomicDevelopmentEconomicdevelopmentisahistoricalprocess,inwhicheconomicgrowthandthechangesofecono,themodeofeconomicdevelopmentreferstothetotalsumoftheconcepts,ideas,methods,systemsandmechanismsthatboosteconomicgrowth,,themodeofeconomicdevelopmentreflectsthecharacteristicsandmutuallinksbetweenproductiveforces,productionrelations,,,whichdealswiththecoreconceptssuchasthegoalofdevelopment,lopmentgoals,,whichdealswiththemainstructuralrelationsineconomicdevelopment,includingthestructuralrelationsbetweeninputandoutput,industrialstructure,urban-ruralstructure,regionalstructure,incomedistributionstructure,economicandsocialdevelopment,manandnature,,whichdealswiththesystemsandmechanismoneconomicdevelopment,includingthebasiceconomicsystemmanifestedinownershipstructure,themodesofresourceallocationandincomedistribution,andthegovernmentadministrationthrou,thechangeinChinaralCommitteenegatedtheultra-leftistlinethattookclassstruggleasthekeylinkandmadeamajorstrategicdecisiontoshifttheemphasisoftheworkofthewholepartyandthefocusofattentionof,thefirstgenerationofthecentralcollectiveleadershipmadepainstakingexplorationsabouttheroadforChinatopursuemodernizationandsetthegoalthatChinaotakeclassstructureasthemainsocialcontradiction,,thethirdplenarysessionofthe11thCPCCentralCommitteemadearesolutedecisiontoshifttheemphasisofthepartysworkandfosbasicnationalconditionsandtheinternationalenvironment,thecentralgovernmentadjustedthetargetsandspeedofeconomicandsocialdevelopment,changedtheguidingideologiesoneconomicandsocialdevelopment,andledthepeoplethroughoutthecountryinexploringfornewmodelsoneconomicandso,theyinclude:——Intheareaofoverallplanningforeconomicandsocialdevelopment,thecentralgovernmentputforwardarealisticandvisionarystrategicconceptthatChinasmodernizationdrivewouldbecompletedinthreesteps1.——Intheareaofguidingideologiesoneconomicandsocialdevelopment,thecentralgovernmentwasdeterminedtofindanewroadthatcouldbringaboutrealdevelopmentspeed,,itrenewedtheprinciplesonindustrializationandmodernization,castawaythestrategythatgaveprioritytothedevelopmentofheavyindustry,andemphasizedthenecessityofvigorouslydevelopingagricultureandconsumergoodsindustryandmaking,itputforwardthe"six-priority"principleforlightandtextileindustries2.——Intheruralareas,thecentralgovernmentpopularizedthehouseholdoutput-linkedcontractingresponsibilitysysteminanall-roundwaytomobilizetheenthusilltownssothattheirgrowthcouldbringaboutruraleconomicprosperityandpromoteruralmodernization.——Intheareaofregionaldevelopment,thecentralgovernmentintroducedtheconceptof"twooverallconsiderations"etweenefficiencyandequity,earlyrichersandlaterichers,eswiththeoverallarrangementforthecountrysmodernizationdrive.——Intheareaofthemicro-economicmechanismandstructureofeconomicperformance,thecentralgovernmentbeganwithanexpansionofdecision-makingpowerforenterprisesandlaunchedvariousreformexperimentsonthestate-ownedenterprises,includingthecontractingsystem,,thecentralgovernmentallowedandencouragedthedevelopmentoftheindividualeconomy,privateeconomy,collectiveeconomyandmanyotherformsofnon-state-ownedeconomies.——Intheareaofinternalandexternaleconomicrelations,thecent,Chinacreatedspecialeconomiczones,graduallypromotedtheopeningofahostofcities,activelycarriedoutforeigntrade,constantlybroadenedthescopeofforeigncapitalutilization,andeffectivelyusedthetwotypesofmarkets"twofundamentaltransitions"andformedtheimportantideaofusingeconomicrestructuringtopromotethechangeinthemodeofgrowth....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,fficientfoodandclothing;thesecondstepwastodoubletheGDPagainbytheendofthe20thcenturyandensurethepeoplewouldleadawell-to-dolife;thethirdstepwastoensurethepercapitaGDPwouldreachthelevelofthemoderatelydevelopedcountriesbythemiddleofthenextcentury,thepeoperials,fuelsandpower;tothemeasuresforpotentialtapping,renovationandtransformation;tocapitalconstruction;tobankloans;totheearningofforeignexchangesandtheintroductionofnewtechnologies;ithapopulationof200mil,andth,thecoastalregionshouldcontributemoreresourcestohesoadheretothisoverallconsideration.、博坊PT四灵用户至上利赢ios下载苹果,heEssenceoftheProblemstoBeAddressedduringtheEleventhFive-YearPlanPeriodThefirsttwoyearsintheEleventhFive-Year%in2006andbyabout3%,thereisastillmuchworktobedonebeforerealizingthegoaloftheEleventsthereasonbehindsuchahugehabitualincreaseinenergyconsumptionperunitGDPWhatnewcircumstancesandproblemsarethererelatedto,,%%peryearinEleventhFive-YearPlanperiodseemsjustslightlyhigherthantheannuallyaveragedecreaseinthepastthreeFive-YearPlanperiods,butactuallyweareconfrontedwithmuchbiggerdifficultiesatpresent,andthenewcir,structuralelementsincludenotonlyindustrialstructures,butalsothe,60%to70%,thingschangedsince2002:structuralelementsturnedtobethedrivingforceforincreasingenergyconsumptionperunitofGDP,ratherthanforenergysaving,,thepositivecontributionoftechnologicalprogresshasbeengreatlyoffsetbythenegativeinfluencefromstructuralelements,,itisimperativetobuildupanewinnermechanismofenergysaving,,incorporatingbothstructuralandtechnicalelements,andincludingbothproductionlinks(energy-intensiveindustriesinparticular),therearesystematicdefectsinenergy-savingadministration,policies,,distinctdefectsexistinthescope,approachanddegreeofgovernmentsinterventioninenergysaving,particularlyrepresentedbyinsufficiencyofpolicyincentives,suchasinadequateincentivemeasuresforenergysavingrelatedtotaxationandpricing,absenceorinapplicabilityoflaws,rulesandstandardsinnewcircumstances,disorderinenergyadministrationsystemlikeenergy-savingmechanism,notableweakeninginenergyadministrationcapabilities,andtheimma,thestructuralelementscausedcontinuousdropofener,theharmbecomesmoreandmorevisibl,tstagefeaturingtheaccelerateddevelopmentofheavyandchemicalindustry,,thepresenteconomicgrowthrategreatlyexceedstheexpectedrateonwhichenergy-savinggoalwasset,,theaveragerateofeco%,andbasedonthatrate,theamountofenergytobesaved(absolutevalue)%.%%,theenergy-savinggoalswillberespectively670millionand700milliontonsofstandardcoalequivalent(mtsce).Therefore,asthepresentgrowthrateismuchhigherthanexpected,enthFive-stmentandtransformationofeconomicgrowthmode,andcurrentenergy-intensiveindustriesshouldbereplacedby,highgrowthrateandlowenergyconsumptioncanhardlybeachievedsimultaneouslya,neithercannewindustriesdrivingeconomicgrowthemergeinashorttime,norcangrowthmodebetransformedovernight,btainedatthesametime,itisnecessarytomakeclearthattoenhances,eenergysavingworkwasconfrontedwithproblemsof"threemoreandthreeless",namely,thecentralgovernmentpaidmoreattentiontothisissuewhereaslocalgovernmentpaidlessattention;moreattentionwasgivenduringenergyshortageorcrisisperiodswhereaslessattentionwasgivenwhenenergywascomparativelysufficient;moreattentionwaspaidinareaswithhighenergyrestric,theenergysavingworkisalsofacedwithproblemsof"threemoreandthreeless",referringtomoremobilizationmeasuresmadebythegovernmentwhereaslessactionstakenbyenterprisesandconsumers;morerequirementsmadewhereaslessconcretemeasures;moreadm,we,legalandadministrativemeasuresaredifferentbynature,ctstheyworkon(Table1):Table1EffectivenessofDifferentMeasuresonDifferentSubjects,isaspecialconceptthatappearedinthecourseofChina,peasantworkersincludethoseworkinginthesecondaryandtertiaryindustriesinside,peas,China,gthelooksof,structuralcontradictioninsupply-demandrelationsbecomeseverprominentOverall,thesupplyofChina,about200millionof,,thecountrysidestillhasabout100millionlaborersinsurplus,,anda,,%%inthelate1980s,%slabormarketin2002,andash,especiallyinthePearlRiverDeltaandthesoutheastpartsofbothFujianandZhejiangProvinces,desurveyontheutilizationofrurallaborin2006,whichcovered17provinces(municipalitiesandregions),20prefecturecities,57counties(cities),166townsandtownships,and2,%ofthevillagessurveyedbelievedthattheyoungandmiddle-agedpeopleoftheirvillageswh%fortheeastregion,76%%%,%,%.%.OurbasicjudgmentisthatalthoughChinaonthewholestillhasanoversupplyofyoungandmiddle-agedrurallabor,moreandmoreregionshaveseentheirremainingyoungrurallaborbeingtota,weshouldanalyzethesuppl"oversupply"toa"mixtureofsurplusandshortage"."Surplus"referstoanaggregateoversupplywhenlaborismeasuredbyconvertinglabortimeintolabor."Shortage"rurallabortransfer,thetrendofreturningtonativeplacesclearlygainsmomentumThegeneraltrendisthatrurall,seekingemplcountiesjointlyconductedbythePeasantWorkersOfficeoftheStateCouncilandtheruraleconomicresearchdepartmentoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,theaverageannualgrowthrateofthenumberofpeasantworkersseekingemploymentoutsidetheirnativecountieswas7%from2000to2006,%,th%%y,theratioofthoseseekingemploymentoutsensiveindustriestothecentralandwesternregionsandasthecentralandwesternregionsimprovedtheirconditionsfordevelopment,moreandmorepeasantworkershavereturnedtotheirr-exportingcounties,thereturnedpeasantworkersaccountedfor23%ofthepeasantworkersworkingoutsidetheirnativeplacesandfor10%%theyemployedaltogetheraccountedfor18%,wepreliminarilyestimatethatabout8millionpeasantworkershavereturnedtotheirnativeplacesforbeasantworkersandalthoughtheinter-regionallytransferredpeasantworkersstillfaroutnumberthelocallytransferredpeasantworkers,anewpatternofrurallabortransferistakingshape,inwhichthetrendofgoingtotheurbanareasforemploymentandthetrendofretur,andthenew-generationpeasantworkershavebecomeavitalforceThesupplyofrurallaborcontinuestorise,,th,theyoungpeasantworkers,bornafterthe1980sandaged16orover,,thenew-generationpeasantworkershavemuchweakeraffectionforlandandtheirwayofthinking,,thenew-generationpeasantworkersareevolvingfrom"part-timeworkersandpart-timepeasants"to"full-timenonagriculturalworkers",fromthe"two-wayflowbetweenurbanandruralareas"tothe"integrationintocities",andfrom"makingaliving"to"pursuingequality".ThisindicatesthatChinahasanurgentneedtosolvetheproblemofitsurban-ruraldualistsystem.LiuShijin,YuBin,ZhangLiqun,YangJianlong,LiJianwei,ChenChangshengFangJinThereweresignstharnmentanditsgradualeffect,theen,weshouldattachgreatimportanttoissuessuchassharpeningemploymentcontradictionsrelatedtoeconomicoperation,dramaticdeclineofenterprisesperformance,inflationarypressurerelatedtotheswiftgrowthofcreditf,macroeconomicpoliciesshouldfocusonpromotingthereboundofmarket-drivendomesticdemand,whilemaintainingthescopeandeffectivenessofgovernmentinvestments,avoidingasecondrincethesecondhalfof2008,%%,whichwasnotonlyduetotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandaconspicuousslowergrowthofworldeconomy,butalsorelatedtothefactthatdomesticleadingsectors,suchasrealestateandautoindustries,entereda,thedevelopmentpatternonwhicheconomicgrowthhasbeenrelyingforalongperiodoftimewasbolsteredbylowpriceandhighinvestmentofelements,suchaslaborforce,landandresources,soitbecomesdifficulttokeepitsustainedwhensignificantchangestakeplaceininternationalanddomesticsituation,,thegro,thechangeinmarketexpectationsandreflectionofenterprises,theover-pessimisticexpectationsweregraduallymultiplied,andthemark,heavyindustrywhichholdsaconsiderablysignificant,lotsofintermediateproductsandlargeinvestmentdemand,oncetheultimatedemandshrinks,itseffectwillspreadalongtheindustrialc,withahighforeigntradedependenceratio,pricesofcommoditiesagainstthebackgroundoffinancialspeculationininternationalmarketsdramaticallydeclinedandimposedsevereimpactsondomesticpricesystem,whichgeneratedthephenomenonof"over-adjustment",differentfrompreviousones,wasbasedontheconditionsofChina,enterp,lackingofcareformarketchanges,imulusmeasuresaccordingtothechangesininternationalanddomesticeconomicsituation,includingdramaticallyincreasingfinancialinputandimplementingstructuraltaxreduction,establishingamassiveplanforindustryadjustmentandreinvigoration,providingvigoroussupporttoscien,,,i,somekeyindicators,s,,%.Fourth,thedeclineofoutputandsalesvolumeofkeyproducts,suchaspowergeneration,rawcoal,cement,steel,,lastQ4andQ1in2009,thesituationofmajoreconomiessuchastheUnitedStates,,domesticinvestmentandconsumptiondemandsaretobefurtherlaunched,andthedownwardpre,%,th%yearonyear,%,theresultofaquestionnaireconductedbyChineseEntrepreneurSurveySystemonover1,000entrepreneursshowedthatover50%ofentrep,someeconomicindicatorsarereturningtonormalintheshortrun,overalleconomicoperationispreliminarilystabilizing,eryoftheOverallEconomyThefactorsinfluencingeconomicgrowthforthewholeyearcanbeobservedfromthreeaspectsincludingforeigndemand,tent,,therecoveryofmarket-d,butthepossibilityoffurtherslideisnotexcludedForeigndemanddramaticallydeclinedowingtotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandeconomicrecession,anditisinevitableforChina,foreignimportersdramaticallycompressedstockinordertolowermarketrisksandreducetied-upfunds,,theexchangerateofsomecountriesdramaticallydepreciated,whichdamagedthecompetitivenessofChinasexportreportednegativegrowthonayear-on-yearbasisinlastNovember,,processingtrade-orientedITproductsbecamethemainfactorthatdraggedexportslide,whilethedeclineofexportvolumeoflightindustryandtextileproducts,suchasgarments,shoes,,,thankstotheincreasedexportrebateratesforlabor-intensiveproducts,thereisasignificantreboundinexports,,,exportsinprocessingtradedroppedlessthanthatinJan,,Americancommoditiesandothershopsfordailynecessities,exclusiveboutiquesforclothing,furniturestoresandnon-fuelcommoditiesofWal-Mart%,%,%%,asdevelopedcountrieshavetakeneconomicstimulusplansinsuccession,ifprivateconsumptionceasestoslip,inventoryadjustmentsofoverseasretailerswillbecompletedinthesecondquarter,,whileexportgrowthdramaticallysloweddowninbothJanuaryandFebruary,%yearonyear....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:LiuShijin,JinRenqing,:ofthetaskforceparticipatedinthediscussion.、DVOR,ovementofSocialistMarketEconomicSystemapprovedbytheThirdPlenarySessionofthe16thPartyCentralCommitteepointedoutthataunifiedandstandardrealpr,whatimpactstherealpropertytaxwilliscussingtheissuehavedifferentviewsonthecontentsoftherealpropertytax,,thesediscussionshavefailedto"lockon",itisnecessarytobrieflyreaffirm,beforediscussingthistopicinthisarticle,themainpointsoftheframeworkdesignoftherealpropertytaxwemadeinourbook"DesignofChinasRealPropertyTaxSystem"(EditedbyXieFuzhanandco-editedbyLongGuoqiangandDingChengri,ChinaDevelopmentPress,September2006)"spreadoutthelump-sumlandtransferroyaltytoannualcollections".Landtransferroyaltybelongstothescopeoflandrent,,threeexistingtaxtypes,namelytherealestatetax,theurbanrealestatetaxandtheurbanlandusetax,rnaltaxsystemsandcanthoroughlychangethecurrentstateoftherealestatetaxsystem,w,itsetsanon-taxableamounttoreflecttheresultroughlyconformstothe"two-eight"principle:80%oftaxrevenuecomesfrom20%edbyindustrialandcommercialenterprisesandtothehigh-endresidentialbuildingsintheurbanareas,,theexistingrealestatetaxandfeesystemshouldbeoverhauledandtheunreasonablechargesshouldbeabolisealestatemarket,dTothehousebuyers,thegreatestchangearisingfromtheintroductionoftherealprop,,thebulkofthenumeroustaxesandfeesexistingintheoriginalrealestatetradinglinkispaidbytherealestatedevelo,acutinthetaxesandfeesoriginally,acutinthetaxesandfeesinthetradinglinkoriginallyassum,theymaychoosetosavepartoftheirincomestobea,thehouse-buyingdemandwillhavenotangiblechangosomeextentOneimportantconsiderationofthisresearchgroupindesigningtherealpropertytaxsystemishowtodemonstratethestatepolicyorientationtoensurethatthebasicresidentialneedoftheresidentswillbemetandtoensurethattheresidentsinvariouspl,theintroductionofthenewrealpropertytaxwillbeaccompaniedbyamassoverhauland,therefore,thetaxandfeeburdenthatmustbedirectlyassumedbyt,whenthemarketsupply-demandrelationsarerelativelyeased,thetaxandfeeburdenthatmustbeassumedbythedevelopersandthenbepassedontotheho,modity,realestateitsedemandonChinata,theintroductionoftherealpropertytaxweakenstheinvestors,thecorrespondingrealpropertytaxwillbecomeheavier,whichinturnwil,,theintroductionoftherealpropertyt,thehomeownersdonothavetopayincometaxbeforetheintroductionoftherealpropertytax,whichmakestherealestateinvestmentandownershipa"moreprofitable"investmentoptionbecausetheinvestorscansitbyandwaitforthereveextent.ByZhangYongwei,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo120,sWindPowerIndustrySince2003,thecentralgovernmentpromulgatedtheRenewableEnergyLawofPeoplesRepublicofChinaanddrewupChinaRenewableEnergyDevelopmentPlantoimprovethe,aseriesofincentivemeasures,suchasthelaunchofwindpowerfranchiserightsbiddingandfavorablefiscalandtaxpolicies,greatlyenhancedthedevelo,sinstalled,weshouldalsoadmitthatprominentproblemsstillexistintheindustryandtheseproblemshavmechanism;seriousprojectsliceuptowinapprovalanddisorderlywindpowermarket(1)Theplanlac2007proposedtobringinstalledgrosscapacityofwindpowerto5GWin2010,;the11thFive-YearPlanforRenewableEnergyDevelopment,promulgatedin2008,plannedtobringtheinstalledgrosscapacityto10GWin2010,,thewindpowerinstallationplandoesnotfitwellwithotherdevelopmentplanssuchaspowergridconstruction,resourceexploration,,includingtheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission,NationalEnergyAdministration,ChineseAcademyofSciences,ChineseAcademyofEngineering,theMinistryofScienceandTechnologyandPowerGridCorporation,areallinvolvedinthewindpowerplanning,rketdevelopmentiftherewerenounitedandcoordinatedmediumandlong-termdevelopmentplanofwindpower.(2),theNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionisinchargeofwindpowerprojectconstructionabove50,000kw,andlocalgovernmentsareresponsiblefortheonesbelow50,,somelocalgovernmentsandinvestmententerprisescircumventthestateapprovalbysplittingbigconstructionplan,000kwcapacityissplitintomorethan6smallerones(Eachonelessthan50,000kw).“Smallwindpowerprojects”directlyapprovedbylocalgovernmentblossomeverywhere,nwillfurtherintensifytheconflictbetweenwindpowerandpowergrids.(3)Projectwinsatenderwithlowpricewhiledeveloperscareforscaleratherthaneffectiveness,andtheypursue“quickstartandlargescale”.Thefactthattheonewhooffersthelowestbiddingpricewillwinthespecialdevelopmentrightsmakedevelopersnottoconsidercurrentprojectbenefit,“enclosemarketsharesbymakingpreemptiveinvestments”and“occupywindenergyresources”.Temptedbytheirrationalinvestmentimpulsion,developersintentionallypulleddowntheirbidrosssubsidization,,evingdiversifiedwindpowerdevelopment,introducinginvestmentthroughmarketmechanismanden,mostenterprisesfailtoimprovetheirowntechnologyanddontownthekeytechnologyWithhugemarketdemandforwindpowerequipmentsandmanufacturingcapacity,Chinanowhasdevelopedacompleteindustrychainforwindpowerequismore,Chinahasmasteredthebasicproducingtechnologyofmegawattwindturbineandcanbatchproducenon-keypartssuchasblade,,localenterprisesinChinahaventmasteredthekeytechnologyinwindturbinedesign,largewindturbinebearing,s,,,intheinternationalmarket,windturbinecontrolsystemoccupieslessthan8%swindturbinecontrolsystemisbasicallyimportedfromDenmarkandAustria,notonlyourcostsaremorethandoubled,butth,lackingnormalmanagementmeasuresforwindpowerfarmconnection,productstandard,certificationandsupervisionAlthoughwindpowerdevelopsrapidlytheseyears,obviouslyitlagsbehsRepublicofChinahasexcessivelylooseregulationsonwindpowergridconnection,whichdoesntmetificationsystemonwindpowerequipmentsintime,hydevelopmentofwindpowerindustry,connectionmanagementmeasuresofwindpowerfarm,whichadaptstoChinesepowergridcharacteristicsandlargewindpowergeneration,werstandards,whichisu,certificationisnotmandatory,,DenmarkandIndia,relevantcertificationinwindpowerfieldismandatory,andallwindturbinescant,butpromotestechnologyaccumulationandrealizethedestinatitprovidemodelparametersnowandareunabletomeettherequiremenrgescale,ifrelevanttechnologystandardswerenotperfectedandhealthycertificationsupervisionsystemwerenotimproved,windpowermarketfloodinglotsofbad-qualityequipmentswouldbringcatastrophicresult.ByXiaoJunyan,ResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo53,scurrentgrainconhinasGrainSecurity(2008~2020)thatin2007Chinas"per-capitagrainpossessionlevelamountedto380kilogramsanditsper-capitagrainconsumptionreached388kilograms",,wecouldobtainfiguresongrainconsumptionfromstatisticaldataandwiththesefigureswecouldpredictthefuturetrendsofChina,currently,Chinasstatisticsarenotadequateenoughtomeetthispurposeasaresultofthefollowingfourkindsofdifficulties:One,therehavebeennodataonper-capitagrainconsumptioninopenstatistics;Two,therehavebeennoeffectivemethodstoworkoutthegrainconsumptionvolume,suchasmeat,poultry,eggs,milkandaquaticproducts;Three,openstatisticsonlyindicatetheamountofgrainconsumedathome,whileitwasthemoneyspentatrestaurantsthatwasworkedoutratherthantheamountofgraineatenatrestaurants,resultingindifferentstatisticalstandards;Four,sgrainconsumptiondatareleasedbyGrainandAgricultureOrganizationoftheUnitedNations(UNFAO)cannotbeuseddirectly,sconceptof"grain",then10%orsoofChinascurrenttotalgrainoutputwi,thisreportwilladoptanoverallcalculatingapproachwithoutanybreakdowns(grainration,feedgrain,industrialgrainandseedgrain),namely,theper-capitagrainconsumptionlevelwillbefiguredoutbasedontherelationshipsbetweenthetotalgrainoutput,,duetoitsclosesubstitutionalrelationswithgrain,,whatiscriticalisthatwehavetomakeclearfourthingsbeforefiguringoutChinascurrentper-capitagrainconsumptionlevel:One,theper-capitagrainpossessionlevelinclusiveofthenetgrainimports;Two,theper-capitalgrainpossessionlevelinclusiveofthenetimportedediblevegetableoilbeingconvertedintograin;Three,deductionofsurplusinventories;Four,,thisreporthaschosentheperiodof1990~2008foranalysis,becauseduringthisdediblevegetableoil(1),,thestructureofthegrainreservesmustbefurtherbrokendowninordertofigureouttheactualgrainconsumptionduring1990~insecurityproblemhasbeenconspicuousshouldcometo18%slargepopulationanditsconditionsforgrainproduction,Chinashouldkeepmoregraininstock,with25%,namely,,whichisroughly500milliontonsofgrainconsumedeachyearinChina,China,sgrainreservesbytheendofMarch2009,,whichhadnotbeenconsumed.(2),whichhastobetakenintoacco,inrecenttenyears,theamountofChinasimportsandexportsofagriculturalproductsincreasedfromabout20billionUSdollarstomorethan99billionUSdollarsin2008,andtheperiodofthefastestincreasewasfrom2003onwards,whenChina,intermsofthespecificimportandexportitemsrelatedtograinandediblevegetableoil,,in2007,China,withtheimportsbeing11%,theimpor,%,whentheexportsofgrainandoilarededucted,itpossessionlevel(1)Per-capitaoutput:390~410kilogramsin6years,370~385kilogramsin8yearsand333~365kilogramsin5yearsduring1990~2008.(2)Net-import-includedper-capitagrainpossessionlevel:390~426kilogramsin9years,370~387kilogramsin6yearsand334~365kilogramsin4yearsduring1990~,before2004,theimportsaccountedfor2%in1996,withthoseallbeingunder1%inotheryearsand,from2004onwards,theimportsexceeded4%%by2008,showinganupwardtrend(Table1).。

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